Irish research shows “Allen Carr” successful for smoking cessation

Allen Carr‘s Easyway to Stop Smoking is a highly effective treatment to help smokers quit, according to a new study just published in the prestigious BMJ’s Tobacco Control journal. The study was carried out in Dublin by the Tobacco Free Research Institute Ireland and is the first published Randomised Clinical Trial (RCT) in the world about Allen Carr’s Easyway to Stop Smoking. RCTs are the most rigorous way of determining whether a cause-effect relation exists between treatment and outcome, and are considered the gold standard method of assessing effectiveness.

The Allen Carr method has been widely used for over 30 years and is available in 150 centres in over 50 different countries. It consists of a one-off 5-hour seminar which does not involve the use of any form of medication. Many celebrity testimonials endorse its effectiveness and there are claims that it has helped more than 30 million smokers quit. Despite this there has never been a published report from a scientific trial supporting its use in a general population.

This trial involved 300 adult smokers equally randomised to Allen Carr and the online HSE Quit.ie service and followed up for 1 year. Result showed a quit rate of 38% at 1 month, 26% at 3 months, 23% at 6 months, and 22% at 1 Year in the Allen Carr Group.  This was almost twice the quit rate achieved in the Quit.ie group.  These success rates are similar to those from the best available treatment programmes currently used for smoking cessation.

Close to 6000 of our citizens die annually from tobacco related disease, and smoking cessation is a very important element of Ireland’s plan to become Tobacco Free by 2025. In that context one of the study’s authors, Professor Luke Clancy, Director General, TFRI said that “Allen Carr is a hugely under-used treatment method which has great potential to help Ireland achieve its ambitious targets in Tobacco Control”.

The study’s first author, Sheila Keogan, TFRI’s Director of Research and Communications said, “We hope that our study showing the success of Allen Carr’s Easyway method of helping smokers to quit will be of great benefit, and may be especially useful for people who are reluctant to take any medication, for instance pregnant smokers”.

The full paper is to be found here.

Smokefree Playgrounds: Policy, practice, signage and bye-laws

Smokefree policy, practice, signage and bye-laws in playgrounds in Ireland

Joan Hanafin

Background

A target date of 2025 has been set for Ireland to become tobacco free, i.e., less than 5% of the population smoking (Department of Health, 2013). This target requires reducing prevalence of adult and child smoking, and preventing children from starting to smoke. A key recommendation of Tobacco Free Ireland is “to further develop the tobacco free playgrounds initiative in conjunction with the local authorities by voluntary measures or by the introduction of bye-laws” (Department of Health 2013, p.42). Moving towards smokefree zones where children congregate is an important step in de-normalising smoking, increasing its social unacceptability, and reducing prevalence. International research demonstrates that there is strong public support for tobacco free children’s playgrounds (Department of Health, 2013). Ireland’s first smokefree playgrounds were introduced in Donegal in 2010 and, since then, many County, City and Town Councils have introduced similar initiatives in playgrounds under their control (Department of Health, 2013; ASH Ireland, 2018). A previous survey carried out by ASH Ireland showed that a high percentage of City and County Councils had introduced such measures. This follow-up survey seeks to update earlier findings about City and County Councils’ policies, practices, signage and bye-laws regarding smokefree playgrounds under their control.

Methods

Sample

A list of the Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and Postal Addresses for all City and County Councils in Ireland was sought from the Local Government Management Agency. An Excel file was received from the Research & Innovation section of the Local Government Management Agency. Using this list, ASH Ireland wrote by post to all City and County Councils in Ireland on 14th May 2018 (n=31[1]) to ask them about their current policies, practices, signage, and bye-laws in relation to smokefree playgrounds under their control. Councils were informed that ASH Ireland continues to promote smokefree environments for children and adults. A follow-up letter was sent by email on 9th August 2018 to all councils from which a full response had not been received.

Response Rate

Fourteen full or partial responses were received from the first round and an additional 5 responses were received from the second round, giving a total of 19 out of 31 responses (61% response rate).

Data requested

Each Council CEO was asked to reply to the following questions:

1.     What percentage of the playgrounds under your control are entirely smokefree?

2.     If not 100%, has a decision been made to make the others smokefree and when can we expect this to be in place?

3.     You might also let us know please if your council has erected smokefree signage in the children’s playgrounds and, if not, we request that you would consider doing so.

4.     Have any changes been introduced to the park bye-laws, so as to legislate locally for smokefree playgrounds?

Results

1. What percentage of playgrounds under your control are smokefree?

Of the 19 responses received, 15 Councils replied that their playgrounds were 100% smokefree (48% of all Councils or 79% of those that responded). Two did not answer this question; one replied that they did not know what percentage of playgrounds was smokefree and were trying to find out; and one responded that none of the playgrounds under their control were smokefree.

2. If not 100%, has a decision been made to make the others smokefree and when can we expect this to be in place?

No council answered this question directly. One council replied that they were trying to find out the answer to this question (but more particularly to questions 1 and 3).

3. Has your council erected smokefree signage in the children’s playgrounds and, if not, we request that you would consider doing so.

Sixteen Councils (52%) reported that they had erected signage. Ten (32%) had erected signage in all playgrounds. Six (19%) had erected signage in some of the children’s playgrounds. Two Councils reported that all playgrounds would have signage completed during the coming months. One Council reported that 10 out of 14 playgrounds under their control had signage and that the Council “will consider extending the Smokefree Policy to the remaining 4 playgrounds”. One Council reported that all new signage includes “no smoking information”, and they included with their response an image of their signage which incorporates a no-smoking icon (no text). One Council did not know but was trying to find out what percentage of children’s playgrounds have no-smoking signage.

4. Have any changes been introduced to the park bye-laws, so as to legislate locally for smokefree playgrounds?

i.         Five Councils (16%) reported that they had introduced bye-laws to legislate locally for smokefree playgrounds.

ii.         One council reported that they did not have any bye-laws.

iii.         Twenty-seven Councils did not provide any information about bye-laws to legislate locally for smokefree playgrounds. This low response rate included Councils that provided information about the other questions asked.

iv.         One Council reported that they were working towards “having revised Bye-Laws being introduced which would ban smoking at public playgrounds”.

v.         One Council reported that they employ Community Wardens who have the power to enforce the Litter Pollution Act 1997 and provides a LoCall Environmental Hotline for members of the public to report littering.

vi.         Additionally, that Council reported that their Environment section “receives complaints from time to time re littering (including cigarette butts) in playgrounds”.

vii.         One other Council reported that Parks Bye-Laws have been enforceable since 1st September 2014 which apply to all Parks, Playgrounds, playing pitches and MUGAs and that appropriate signage has been erected in all of the parks and playgrounds with a view to notifying the general public of the bye-laws.

Summary, Conclusion, Recommendations

Of 31 City and County Councils surveyed by ASH Ireland during the period May-August 2018, 61% (n=19) responded, in two rounds. City and County Councils that responded to the survey were positive about implementing Smokefree playgrounds under their control.

·      48% (n=15) reported that playgrounds under their control were smokefree.

·      52% (n=16) had erected signage; 32% (n=10) in all playgrounds and ~20% (n=5) in some or most playgrounds under their control.

·      16% (n=5) said that they had bye-laws in place to prohibit smoking in playgrounds.

More needs to be done to increase the number of City and County Council-controlled smokefree playgrounds. Efforts to increase smokefree outdoor areas should be informed by research findings asserting that, for policy implementation and compliance, establishing the public health evidence for policy change is critical to engaging diverse stakeholders with varied tobacco-related interests (Leung et al., 2013).

Benefits of Smokefree playgrounds

Research from the UK, US, Australia, Canada and other countries suggest many benefits of smokefree playgrounds[2]. Smokefree playgrounds are desirable for reasons of denormalisation and positive role modelling, reducing the prevalence of smoking, avoidance of secondhand smoke dangers, and environmental benefit. Smokefree playgrounds are justified as the toxicity of smoke is a nuisance to many and poses a health risk to others. Smokefree playgrounds help users to quit smoking. There is wide public support for smokefree legislation in general and for smokefree playgrounds in particular. Smokefree playgrounds:

·      continue the denormalisation of tobacco and help reduce smoking prevalence among adults and children.

·      communicate a positive message that tobacco use is not compatible with an active, healthy lifestyle and that tobacco use and sports do not mix.

·      protect children and their carers from the harmful effects of exposure to secondhand smoke. Secondhand smoke is a human carcinogen for which there is no safe level of exposure. Even in outdoor settings, secondhand smoke levels can reach levels as high as those found in indoor facilities where smoking is permitted. Secondhand smoke causes heart disease, cancer, respiratory problems, and ear infections, and worsens asthma. Exposure to secondhand smoke is especially harmful to children and adults with asthma or other chronic conditions. Children, older adults, people with special health needs, and pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to the health risks caused by secondhand smoke exposure, even in outdoor environments. Tobacco-free parks and beaches provide families and children with healthy environments in which they are not exposed to the negative health effects of secondhand smoke.

·      enhance support for community users to quit smoking.

·      enhance users’ enjoyment of clean air and health activities.

·      reduce cigarette litter. Discarded cigarette butts pollute the land and water and are highly toxic and dangerous to children, domestic animals, and wildlife. Small children are at risk of swallowing, choking or burning themselves with discarded butts and suffering nicotine poisoning.

·      reduce maintenance costs and fire risks. Cigarette butts are the most littered item in the world and they are not biodegradable. Carelessly discarded cigarette butts are a frequent cause of fires, especially during periods of dry weather.

Recommendations for promoting smokefree playgrounds in Ireland

·      Public health campaigns should include a focus on the benefits of smokefree playgrounds to children, parents and others using these facilities (see above).

·      City and County Councils that have made efforts to make playgrounds under their control smokefree should be noted and commended.

·      Examples of good practice regarding smokefree playgrounds should be collated and circulated.

·      Those Councils that have not yet made playgrounds under their control smokefree should be encouraged to do so.

·      Those Councils that have not yet erected smokefree signage in playgrounds under their control should be encouraged to do so.

·      Councils appear to be receptive to guidance regarding signage. Several Councils attached with their survey responses examples of their signage. A range of signage suggestions could be made available to all Councils based on best practice. This would help Councils to avoid “re-inventing the wheel” and perhaps facilitate wider implementation of smokefree signage in playgrounds.

·      Some Councils appear to be receptive to guidance regarding bye-laws. Examples of good practice could be circulated to all Councils.

·      Playgrounds not under the control of City and County Councils should be informed of good smokefree practices and encouraged to implement smokefree playgrounds and to erect appropriate signage.

·      Regarding health inequalities, social class differences persist in smoking prevalence and may also exist in how playgrounds are used. Evidence[3] from other countries suggests that consideration should be given to ways of allocating sufficient resources to enhance voluntary compliance so that smokefree playground policies and bye-laws do not contribute to health inequalities.

References

ASH Ireland (2018). https://ash.ie/ash-campaigns/smoke-free-playgrounds/

Cancer Council Queensland (2018). The Benefits of Introducing Smoke-Free Public Places. Available at  https://cancerqld.blob.core.windows.net/site/content/uploads/2016/12/Local-Government_Smoke-free-public-places-benefits_FACTSHEET.pdf

Capital District Tobacco-Free Coalition (2018). Benefits of Tobacco-Free Parks and Outdoor Recreation Facilities. Available at http://smokefreecapital.org/wp-content/uploads/Benefits_FAQ_rev2016.pdf

Department of Health (2014). Healthy Ireland. A Framework for Improved Health and Well-Being 2013-2025. Dublin: Department of Health. Available at https://health.gov.ie/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/HealthyIrelandBrochureWA2.pdf

Department of Health / Healthy Ireland (2013). Tobacco Free Ireland. Report of the Tobacco Policy Review Group. Dublin: Department of Health. Available at

https://health.gov.ie/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/TobaccoFreeIreland.pdf

Kruger, J., Jama, A., Kegler, M., Marynak, K., & King, B. (2016). National and State-Specific Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Parks among U.S. Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(9), 864. http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090864. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5036697/pdf/ijerph-13-00864.pdf

Leung, R., Mallya, G., Dean, L. T., Rizvi, A., Dignam, L., & Schwarz, D. F. (2013). Instituting a Smoke-Free Policy for City Recreation Centers and Playgrounds, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010. Preventing Chronic Disease, 10, E116. http://doi.org/10.5888/pcd10.120294 Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3711557/

MDHHS (Michigan Department of Health and Human Services) (2018). Why parks and beaches should be tobacco free. Available at https://www.michigan.gov/mdhhs/0,5885,7-339-71550_2955_2973-340373–,00.html

NHS Scotland (2009?). Smoke-Free Playgrounds in Glasgow. A Literature Review. Glasgow: NHS. Available at http://library.nhsggc.org.uk/mediaAssets/CHP%20Inverclyde/Smokefree%20Playgrounds.pdf

Pederson, Ann et al., (2016). Smoking on the margins: a comprehensive analysis of a municipal outdoor smoke-free policy. BMC Public Health 16:852

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/S12889-016-3466-2

Available at https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12889-016-3466-2

Endnotes

[1] On the Excel mailing list received from the Local Government Management Agency, 5 assistant chief executives of Dublin City Council were listed in addition to the chief executive. These 6 officers of Dublin City Council were included in the mailing in the interests of communicating with all officers named on the list. A total of 36 surveys were sent out, therefore, to a total of 31 City and Council offices. (No response has been received to date from any of the offices of Dublin City Council.)
[2] See, for example, Cancer Council Queensland (2018); Capital District Tobacco-Free Coalition (2018); Leung et al. (2016); NHS Glasgow (2009); Pederson et al. (2016).
[3] See, for example, Pederson et al. (2016).

Joan Hanafin, October 2018

Smokefree Playgrounds: Survey Summary

Survey 2018 Summary

Between May and August 2018, ASH Ireland carried out a survey of City and County councils in Ireland about Smokefree policy, practice, signage and bye-laws in playgrounds under their control.

Four questions were asked about smokefree playgrounds:

1.     What percentage of the playgrounds under your control are entirely smokefree?

2.     If not 100%, has a decision been made to make the others smokefree and when can we expect this to be in place?

3.     You might also let us know please if your council has erected smokefree signage in the children’s playgrounds and, if not, we request that you would consider doing so.

4.     Have any changes been introduced to the park bye-laws, so as to legislate locally for smokefree playgrounds?

Results

1. Fifteen of 19 Councils that provided information reported that their playgrounds are 100% smokefree, representing 48% of all Councils or 79% of those that responded.

2. No Council answered directly, possibly because the great majority of those that replied had 100% smokefree playgrounds.

3. Sixteen (52%) Councils reported that signage had been erected in all (10) or some (6) playgrounds.

4. Five (16%) Councils reported that they had introduced bye-laws regarding smokefree playgrounds.

For full survey results, see separate post.

Joan Hanafin

ASH Ireland welcomes 50c price increase, Budget 2019

ASH Ireland Response to Budget 2019: 50c increase welcomed

Ash Ireland welcomes the announcement by Minister Donohue in the 2019 Budget statement today to increase the price of a pack of cigarettes by 50c.  Price is widely recognised internationally, and by the World Health Organisation, as the most important way of encouraging smokers to quit and discouraging young people from experimenting with tobacco. The possible links being raised between ‘smuggling and price increase’ are totally misguided and mainly fuelled by a major vested interest, the Tobacco Industry. Smuggling must be tackled as a separate and very serious criminal issue but it should not impinge on health policy and related decisions. ASH Ireland called for a 1 euro increase in price in its pre-budget submission.

Dr Patrick Doorley, Chairman of ASH Ireland said today,  “Significant inroads have been made in regard to smoking prevalence over the past 15 years with current levels down to less than 20%, down from 29% in 2003.  However, if the Government is to achieve its stated objective of establishing a smoke-free Ireland by 2025 then it must commit to significant annual increases in the price of tobacco, including Roll Your Own tobacco. We call on the government to ring-fence funding for the purpose of supporting smokers to quit, particularly smokers in lower socio-economic groups who have  higher levels of smoking.”

Dr Doorley went on to say,  “Smuggling of tobacco into this country is a major issue for Government. However, we must be wary of Tobacco Industry efforts to use smuggling as a reason for not introducing effective measures which can improve the nation’s health.  There are many examples of jurisdictions where tobacco price has been increased for health reasons, and smuggling simultaneously tackled and reduced – such as Australia, New Zealand, UK and Spain.”

“Ireland is seen as a world leader in tobacco control. I ask the Government to intensify the public-health battle against tobacco, especially in relation to expanding smoke-free spaces. The toll to our citizens from smoking is a heavy one in terms of disease, disability and death. Smoking causes unique and catastrophic consequences for families all over Ireland as, every year, close to 6000 of our citizens die from smoking. We must do all that is possible to reduce this dreadful statistic by de-normalising smoking, and above all introducing pro-health legislation”, Dr Doorley said.

 

ENDS

Further information contact:

Tel: 0818 305055

Email: info@ash.ie

ASH Chairperson elected to European Board

Dr Patrick Doorley, Chairperson ASH Ireland has been elected to the Board of the European Network for Smoking and Tobacco Prevention (ENSP). Dr Doorley is a specialist in Public Health Medicine and a fellow of the Faculty of Public Health Medicine of Ireland.

ENSP is an international non-profit organisation whose mission is to develop a strategy for co-ordinated action among organisations active in tobacco control in Europe by sharing information and experience and through co-ordinated activities and joint projects. ENSP aims to create greater coherence among smoking prevention activities and to promote comprehensive tobacco control policies at both national and European levels.

ENSP’s top priority objectives are:

·      to implement the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Europe by 2020, and

·      to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in Europe to less than 5% by 2040.

ENSP’s vision for the future is to eliminate health inequalities among European citizens and suffering caused by ill health and early death due to tobacco-related diseases.

To attain its purpose, ENSP undertakes to conduct the following activities;

·      to focus in priority on co-ordination and consensus-building, education, prevention and cessation;

·      to facilitate the creation and development of national and international alliances for smoking prevention and tobacco control in Europe, as well as support for their actions;

·      to promote collaboration amongst member organisations and support their actions;

·      to stimulate and participate in joint projects at national and international levels;

·      to undertake the collection, distribution and exchange of information relevant for tobacco control to the members of the network, non-governmental organisations, intergovernmental organisations, national governments all over Europe and the institutions of the European Union;

·      to sponsor, promote and organise education and training seminars, conferences, missions and exhibitions on matters relevant to smoking and tobacco prevention and cessation.

Ms Norma Cronin Board Member, ASH Ireland was previously a member of the Board of ENSP.

END

Update on Smoking in Cars

Dr Patrick Doorley, Chairperson of ASH Ireland spoke recently about the importance of the ban on smoking in cars with children and said:

ASH Ireland first proposed a ban in smoking in cars in 2008 and we are very pleased that it is in place. We believe that this important piece of legislation is helping to ensure that our children are protected from the harmful effects of passive (environmental) tobacco smoke.

Prior to the ban, one in seven Irish children was being exposed to tobacco smoke in cars, which was totally unacceptable. There is definitive evidence to show that non-smokers travelling in a car while another person is smoking will be harmed by the toxic chemicals which are released in such a restricted environment. Researchers have found that secondhand smoke in cars poses a major health risk and the toxins found are thought to be the most important among the thousands in tobacco smoke that cause smoking-related disease.

Children’s lungs are particularly sensitive and it is well established that children are very vulnerable to such toxins in cars. Adults who suffer from asthma and other respiratory conditions are also affected of course.  We believe that the introduction of the law has heightened awareness about the harm caused by smoking in cars, especially to children. Like the ban on smoking in the workplace, it was not envisaged that this initiative would have to be driven by fear of prosecution. It is the law and we believe that the vast majority of smokers, and particularly parents, are responsible and comply with legislation. We would hope therefore that significantly fewer children are being exposed to tobacco smoke in motor vehicles since the ban was introduced.

New study adds to concerns about e-cigarettes

Dr Patrick Doorley, Chairman of ASH Ireland has responded to a new study about e-cigarettes and urged people to start vaping only as a last resort when trying to quit smoking.

 

The study, just published in the peer-reviewed journal Thorax (British Medical Journal Group), has shown that e-cigarette vapour destroys protective cells that keep the lungs clear of harmful particles. It showed that the vapour impairs the activity of cells known as macrophages, which help remove dust, bacteria and allergens. Some of the damage highlighted by the study is similar to the effects of tobacco and chronic lung disease.

 

Dr Doorley said that the report adds to reservations about the safety of e-cigarettes. Speaking to the Irish Independent, he said,

“We certainly shouldn’t dismiss this study. We have known for quite some time about the concerns of vaping. Our health regulator HIQA conducted a major study in recent years which acknowledged that, while e-cigarettes could help people quit smoking, there were still many reservations. The single biggest concern we have at the moment is their long-term safety.”

 

Dr Doorley told the Irish Independent that e-cigarettes should not be the go-to solution when giving up smoking. “There are options that are safer and have a good long-term track record, like the drug Varenicline, along with nicotine replacement therapy.”

 

For help quitting, please contact the National Quitline at http://www.quit.ie or call 1800 201203.

 

The article just published about the study on e-cigarettes is available in full here.

The Irish Independent article is available here.

END

Cigars and Health Harm

What are cigars and how do they differ from cigarettes?

A cigar is defined as a tube-shaped tobacco product that is made of tightly rolled, cured tobacco leaves in a tobacco leaf wrapper or a wrapper that contains tobacco.[1] Cigars differ in design from cigarettes, typically being composed entirely of whole-leaf tobacco, wrapped in leaf tobacco rather than paper and typically smoked without a filter.[2] According to the World Health Organisation, cigars generally contain several times as much tobacco as cigarettes, but their size is much more variable, ranging from the size of a cigarette to products that are several times the diameter and containing as much tobacco as a package of 20 cigarettes or more.[3]

Does cigar smoking cause health harm?

Yes. Cigar smoking causes cancer and other diseases.[4]

What cancers does cigar smoking cause?

According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute[5], cigar smoking causes cancer of the oral cavity, larynx, oesophagus, and lung. It may also cause cancer of the pancreas. Regular cigar smokers and cigarette smokers have similar levels of risk for oral cavity and oesophageal cancers. The more you smoke, the greater the risk of disease.

What other diseases does cigar smoking cause?

Daily cigar smokers, particularly those who inhale, are at increased risk for developing heart disease and other types of lung disease [6] as well as other diseases and disability referenced below.

What if I don’t inhale the cigar smoke?

Many cigar smokers believe that they are at no risk or less risk of health harm because they do not inhale cigar smoke. The National Cancer Institute addresses the question about inhaling cigar smoke as follows[7]:

“Unlike nearly all cigarette smokers, most cigar smokers do not inhale. Although cigar smokers have lower rates of lung cancer, coronary heart disease, and lung disease than cigarette smokers, they have higher rates of these diseases than those who do not smoke cigars.

All cigar and cigarette smokers, whether or not they inhale, directly expose their lips, mouth, tongue, throat, and larynx to smoke and its toxic and cancer-causing chemicals. In addition, when saliva containing the chemicals in tobacco smoke is swallowed, the oesophagus is exposed to carcinogens. These exposures probably account for the similar oral and oesophageal cancer risks seen among cigar smokers and cigarette smokers.”

More information about cancer, cigars and cigar smoking researched and written by the U.S. National Cancer Institute may be found here: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/tobacco/cigars-fact-sheet

What about cigar smoking compared with cigarette smoking?

As noted, there are differences in health harms from cigar and cigarette smoking. However, a scientific study published in 2015 which was a systematic review of 22 studies of the health effects of cigar smoking found that cigar smoking carries many of the same health risks as cigarette smoking.[8] Mortality risks from cigar smoking vary by level of exposure as measured by cigars per day and inhalation level and can be as high as or exceed those of cigarette smoking.

Some key points from this systematic review are to be found at the link below from the online men’s health resource (www.menshealth.com) which says that “lighting up a Cuban could be more lethal than you think: Cigar smokers are at risk of dying from many of the same diseases that affect people who puff on cigarettes”.[9] https://www.menshealth.com/health/a19544365/dangers-of-cigars/

The scientific study was published in 2015 in the peer -reviewed journal BMC Public Health and is available in full at this link:

https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-015-1617-5

An overview of scientific studies of cigars and cigar usage

Here are sixteen points from Viegas’s overview of scientific studies of cigars and cigar usage [10]:

1.     Cigar smoking results in a considerable risk of developing smoking-related diseases.

2.     In comparison with individuals who never smoked, cigar smokers have a greater risk of coronary disease and cerebrovascular accident, as well as a higher overall rate of mortality due to other diseases.

3.     The great majority of cigars have more nicotine than the sum of many cigarettes (1-2 mg of nicotine in a cigarette and 100-400 mg of nicotine in a cigar, which contains up to 17 g of tobacco).

4.     Cigar smoke is more alkaline than is that of cigarettes, thereby facilitating its dissolution and absorption by the oral mucosa. This makes it possible to achieve the desired dose of nicotine without the need to inhale the smoke into the lungs. Despite the fact that many cigar smokers do not inhale, cigars can cause nicotine dependence, because they make high levels of nicotine available so rapidly.

5.     Cigar smoke contains a class of highly carcinogenic compounds (nitrosamines, hydrocarbons and aromatic amines) at levels significantly higher than those found in cigarette smoke.

6.     Biochemical analysis has shown that, for an equal number of grams of tobacco smoked, tar, carbon monoxide and ammonia are produced in larger quantities through the burning of cigars than through the burning of cigarettes. In addition, the tar derived from cigars has high concentrations of carcinogenic agents such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Viegas explains that this could be the reason that the risk of presenting with lung cancer is up to nine times greater for cigar smokers than for nonsmokers.

7.     The rates of lung cancer among cigar smokers are related to the number of cigars smoked per day and to the degree of inhalation of the smoke.

8.     Cigar smokers who inhale no smoke expose the oral cavity and the tongue to large quantities of smoke, thereby increasing the risk of oral cancer. The constituents of tobacco dissolved in the saliva are also swallowed, increasing the incidence of oesophageal cancer in this group.

9.     Tobacco and alcohol act synergistically to increase the development of oral and pharyngeal cancer.

10.  The risk of developing cancer in the oral cavity (lips, tongue, mouth and throat), larynx or oesophagus is twice as high for cigar smokers as it is for nonsmokers.

11.  Cigar smokers also present an increased risk of developing COPD and coronary disease.

12.  The risk of dying from cancer of the pancreas or bladder has been shown to be two and three times higher, respectively, for cigar smokers who inhale the smoke than for nonsmokers.

13.  Compared with cigarette smokers, cigar smokers also present an increased risk of respiratory and heart diseases, as well as cancer of the oral cavity, throat and oesophagus.

14.  Cigar smoking has been related to the onset of erectile dysfunction in men.

15.  Secondary smoke from cigars contributes more to environmental pollution than does cigarette smoke.

16.  Since cigar smoke contains higher concentrations of toxins and cancerous substances than does cigarette smoke, it also contributes to increasing the risk of lung cancer and other smoking-related diseases in nonsmokers (passive smokers).

All quotes above from Viegas CA: Noncigarette forms of tobacco use. J Bras Pneumol 2008; 34: 1069–1073. The full article is available at this link: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5074/4f764adcd62b86756555b75addf579e23848.pdf

Other useful links about cigars and cigar smoking [11] [12] [13] [14]

You will find more specific information about cigar smoking at these useful links, including about the rise in flavoured cigars aimed at the children’s market:

https://www.cancer.ie/cancer-information/oesophagus-cancer/causes-prevention#sthash.VMuyQpJQ.dpbs

http://cancerpreventionresearch.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2017/11/05/1940-6207.CAPR-17-0084

https://www.verywellmind.com/facts-about-cigar-smoking-2824739

https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/what-we-do/industry-watch/cigar-report

Quitting cigar smoking

You will find information on smoking cessation on the ASH Ireland website here: https://www.ash.ie/quitting-smoking/ including links to the HSE quit.ie resource.

Summary

In short, cigar smoking harms health. Cigar smoking causes cancer, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other diseases. Cigar smoke contains the same toxins as cigarette smoke. Secondhand smoke from cigars harms people around cigar smokers, who are passive smokers. Quitting smoking will improve your health and the health of those around you. Help is available from your GP and from www.quit.ie

 

Joan Hanafin, July 2018

References

[1] National Cancer Institute (NCI) 2018. https://www.cancer.gov/ Accessed 12 July 2018.
[2] Viegas CA: Noncigarette forms of tobacco use. J Bras Pneumol 2008; 34: 1069–1073.
[3] http://www.who.int/tobacco/communications/events/wntd/2006/Report_v8_4May06.pdf Accessed 12 July 2018.
[4] Viegas CA: Noncigarette forms of tobacco use. J Bras Pneumol 2008; 34: 1069–1073.
[5] National Cancer Institute (NCI) 2018. https://www.cancer.gov/ 12 July 2018.
[6] Viegas CA: Noncigarette forms of tobacco use. J Bras Pneumol 2008; 34: 1069–1073.
[7] National Cancer Institute (NCI) 2018. https://www.cancer.gov/ Accessed 12 July 2018.
[8] Chang CM, Corey CG, Rostron BL, Apelberg BJ. Systematic review of cigar smoking and all cause and smoking related mortality. BMC Public Health 2015 15:390 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1617-5
[9]  https://www.menshealth.com/health/a19544365/dangers-of-cigars/ Accessed 12 July 2018.
[10] Viegas CA: Noncigarette forms of tobacco use. J Bras Pneumol 2008; 34: 1069–1073.
[11] https://www.cancer.ie/cancer-information/oesophagus-cancer/causes-prevention#sthash.VMuyQpJQ.dpbs Accessed 12 July 2018.
[12] http://cancerpreventionresearch.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2017/11/05/1940-6207.CAPR-17-0084 Accessed 12 July 2018.
[13] https://www.verywellmind.com/facts-about-cigar-smoking-2824739 Accessed 12 July 2018.
[14] https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/what-we-do/industry-watch/cigar-report Accessed 12 July 2018.

 

Workshop ~ ASH Ireland and Public Health Policy

Staff and Students of North Dakota State University with Dr Patrick Doorley at the Workshop on Public Health Policy, Dublin, 25th May 2018

Dr Patrick Doorley, Chairperson ASH Ireland facilitated an afternoon workshop in Dublin on 25th May 2018. The workshop for medical students and staff from North Dakota State University consisted of a presentation by Dr Doorley on the work of ASH Ireland, tobacco control, and public health policy in Ireland followed by an interactive question and answer session. Mark Mulally, Learn International, who organised the event thanked Dr Doorley for his time and expertise and said, “It was a hugely informative, interactive and entertaining workshop which the students really enjoyed”.

 

World No Tobacco Day 31 May 2018

CALL FOR ADDITIONAL SMOKEFREE OUTDOOR SPACES BY ASH IRELAND

While recognising that Ireland has made good progress over the last decade
in decreasing smoking prevalence among adults and children*, the current
rate of progress is not adequate to achieve the adult prevalence target
of 5% by 2025; as set out by a previous Government.

Dr Patrick Doorley, Chairman of ASH Ireland said today, “We are now
urging the Government to introduce more intensive measures to ensure that the 5%
target is met seven years from now. The good news is that smoking
prevalence among children is at an all-time low and it appears therefore
that we are on track to achieve the target of 5% for children. The
reduction of smoking among young people is bad news for the tobacco
industry as new recruits are required to replace those 6,000 of our
citizens who die from tobacco related disease annually.”

The sad and tragic reality of tobacco addiction is disease, disability
and death. Given that 6,000 people die each year from tobacco-related
diseases,we cannot afford to become complacent about the issue of tobacco
addiction.

Dr Doorley continued, “In recent years ASH Ireland has driven the
development of smokefree outdoor spaces – in children’s playgrounds, parks, sports
stadia, and higher education institutions. In 2013, the government committed to a
number of measures in its strategy TFI (Tobacco Free Ireland), including
the possibility of banning smoking in some outdoor spaces. We now call on
the Government to implement new anti-smoking measures, particularly in
outdoor spaces that are frequented by children. We hold the view, based on
past experience, that such measures will have the support of the Irish
people”

Additional protective measures against the harmful effects of
environmental tobacco smoke may well be opposed by vested interests.  The
tobacco industry and its allies will strongly oppose these measures in
order to protect its profits, so their position on such health matters
should be entirely ignored.”

Ends
For contact: E  info@ash.ie  or  T 0818 305055